Bacolod City, situated on the northwestern part of the island of Negros, is bounded by the Guimaras Strait on the west, the municipality of Talisay on the north, the municipality of Murcia on the east, and Bago City on the South.
The City has land area of 162.67 square. In 1970, it had a population of 187,300. It has a cool invigorating climate with abundant rainfall. The majority of the people speak Hiligaynon and the rest speak Cebuano.
Bacolod, the “Sugar Bowl of the Philippines,” is one of the most progressive and elite cities in the country. Along its highway, sugarcane plantation is a typical scene; coconut and rice are also grown. The people are engaged in livestock, fishing, and pottery.
Bacolod was derived from the Ilonggo word “bakolod” meaning “stonehill” since the settlement was founded in 1770 on a stonehill area, now the district of Granada and the former site of the Bacolod Murcia Milling Company.
Due to the Muslim raids in 1787, Bacolod was transferred towards the shoreline. The old site was called “Da-an Banwa,” meaning old town.
In 1894, by order of Governor General Claveria, through Negros Island Governor Manuel Valdeviseo Morquecho, Bacolod was made the capital of the Province of Negros. Bernardino de los Santos became the first gobernadorcillo and Fray Julian Gonzaga the first parish priest.
The success of the revolution in Bacolod was attributed to the low morale of the local Spanish detachment-due to its defeat in Panay and Luzon and to the psychological warfare of Generals Aniceto Lacson and Juan Araneta.
In 1897, a battle in Bacolod was fought in Matab-ang River. A year later, on November 5, 1898, the Negrense “Revolucionarios,” armed with knives, bolos, spears, and rifle-like “nipa” stems, and pieces of “sawali” mounted in carts, captured the convento where Coronel de Castro y Cisneros, well-armed “casadores” and platoons of civil guards, surrendered. Two days later, on the 17th, most of the revolutionary army gathered together to establish a Provisional Junta and to confirm the elections of Aniceto Lacson as president, Juan Araneta as war-delegate, as well as the other officials.
On March 1899, the American forces led by Colonel James G. Smith occupied Bacolod, the revolutionary capital of the Provisional Republic of Negros.
Bacolod City was occupied by the Japanese forces on May 21, 1942. Three years after, it was liberated by the American forces on May 29, 1945.
By virtue of Commonwealth Act No. 326, enacted by the National Assembly, the City of Bacolod was created on June 18, 1938.